Villages and clusters
Hongkeng Tulou Cluster
Hongkeng Tulou Cluster Scenic Spot (洪坑土楼群), a UNESCO World Heritage Site for having 3,000 large-scale, uniquely-shaped Tulou. This world heritage site contains some beautiful tulou of all different shapes - around, square, U-shapes. And it is Chinese National 5A Scenic Spot.
Hongkeng Tulou Cluster is located in Hukeng Town, across the street from the Tulou Bus Station in Liulian. Hongkeng Tulou Cluster concentrates the most kinds of earthen buildings in Yongding County. There are about 100 earthen buildings of various sizes in the long and narrow village which lies along both banks of a river. Some of the house designs are unique, including the Zhencheng Building, Fuyu Building (“Five-Phoenix Building”), Kuiju Building, and the mini round Rusheng Building. The village strides the Jinfeng Creek and is set in a graceful landscape which represents the harmonious fusion of different cultural traditions and creates an idyllic landscape of outstanding quality. The ticket is ¥90, students ¥45.
Hongkeng Tulou Cluster
Gaobei Tulou Cluster
Backing against mountains and along streams, Gaobei Tulou Cluster consists of Tulou constructed in 16th, 17th, 18th century and as new as 20th century, the surrounding area of each building is paved with blue stone.
Gaobei village housed 306 people in 2005. As with the other settlements, the tulou are built around a stream. Only part of the settlement is within the nominated area. The earliest tulou dates from the 16th century, a second large circular one covering 5,376 square meters is from the 17th century and the two remaining ones were built in 1931 and 1962. The 17th tulou, Chengqi Lou, is perhaps the largest circular tulou ever constructed housing as many as 800 people.It has an unusual plan consisting of 4 concentric annular constructions. One of the single storey rings housed a school for women. It is described as a maze – easy to access but difficult to leave.
Chengqi lou is the highlight and Shize lou, Wuyun lou, Qiaofu lou.
Gaobei Tulou Cluster
Chuxi Tulou Cluster
Chuxi Tulou cluster 初溪土樓群, located in Yongding County, Xiayang township, Chuxi village. Inscribed as UNESCO World Heritage site 1113-001.
The Chuxi Tulou Cluster in Chuxi Village consists of five round buildings and many square buildings, located in the middle of hills. Three massive round buildings and one square building are situated near the river and are hidden among the deep mountains and lush vegetation like a treasure waiting to be discovered. A small path made of cobblestones links these earthen buildings. Behind the buildings are terraced hills and dense forests. Including jiqing lou, Yuqing Lou, Gengqing lou, Shengqing lou, Shanqing lou, Xiqing lou.
Jiqing lou, the largest round tulou, and also the oldest in this cluster, built in 1419 during the reign of Emperor Yongle of the Ming dynasty. It consists of two concentric rings, the outer ring building is four storeys tall, with 53 rooms on each level. The outer ring has 72 staircases. The second ring is a one-storey building.
Chuxi Earthen Building Cluster is considered as the most graceful one in Yongding County.
Nanxi Tulou Cluster
The Nanxi Tulou cluster is the name applied to a section of the Nanxi ("South Creek") Valley in Hukeng Town (Yongding County), which for a distance of several kilometers is almost continuously built up with tulous. For its striking visual effect, the area is referred to by some authors as the "Tulou Great Wall". One of the tulous in this large cluster, the Yanxiang Lou, a round tulou in Xinnan Village (24°36′22″N 116°58′30″E ) figures on the World Heritage List as Site 1113-004.
Nanxi near Hukeng Town snakes through the green mountains and lush foliage. Tulous dot the vast fields like pearls scattered among the verdant mountains and green streams, creating a magnificent and elegant sight.
Houses – Lou
Zhenchenglou , nicknamed "the prince of tulou", belongs to Hongkeng Tulou cluster. It is located in Hongkeng village, Hukeng township of Yongding County. Inscribed as UNESCO World Heritage 1113-002. It was built in 1912 by the descendents of a rich tobacco merchant. Zhenchenglou is a double ring tulou, its outer ring is four storeys high, total 184 rooms, the inner ring is two storeys with 32 rooms. The rooms are divided into four grades according to the “Eight Diagrams” with firewall in between; they form separate courtyards and are interconnected through doors, forming an integrated whole.The outer ring was partitioned into four segments according to Bagua concept of Chinese Fengshui. The inner circle has two floors, housing an ancestral hall and rooms for social functions. The multi-ring concentric architectural structure is a mix of Chinese and Western architecture, making the building a gem of round earthen buildings.
Western influence is evident in the Greek style columns of the ancestral hall, and in the wrought iron railing of the second level corridor.
It is located in Hongkeng Tulou Cluster, Hukeng Town, Yongding County. In 1880, the three Lin brothers spent 200,000 silver dollars to buid a mansion-style tulou.The outer part looks like three mountains, symbolizing the three brothers. Along the central axis, the front part of building is low and the back part high. There are wing buildings on both sides. The center is higher and the two sides lower; the layout is thoughtfully designed.
It is the quintessential form of the “Wufeng Building” in Yongding, this building features an orderly structure, a neat layout and a strong emphasis on symmetry. The construction is perfectly adapted to the topography of the slopes behind the building, making it an awe-inspiring sight.
It is located in Nanxi Tulou Cluster, Hukeng Town, Yongding County. Zhenfu building is about four kilometers from Zhengcheng lou. The mountain is behind it, and a river beside it. Built in 1913, it adheres to the Eight Trigrams design. It occupies more than 4000 square meters of land, and has three halls and ninety-six rooms. A lot of stone and tile was used in the interior. The caving is fine and magnificent. It is called Zhengcheng lou’s “sister buiding.”
This large circular tulou, standing on its own in a narrow valley, and was built by a businessman in 1913 to house workers for the tobacco industry. Like Zhencheng Lou, it is a mixture of Hakka and western architectural styles – the elaborate ancestral hall has granite columns, and the porch is tiled and enclosed by an iron grille gate. Part of the internal space was used for storing tobacco products and for offices.
Yanxiang Lou is a large round tulou in Xinnan Village (Xinnancun), Hukeng Town, Yongding County, Fujian. The circular tulou was built in 1842 and covers 4,300 square meters. Around 100 metres from the outer wall is a small garden for exercises and study. There are many other tulous in Xinnancun, but Yanxiang Lou is the only one in the village listed as one of the sites of the World Heritage object "Fujian Tulou".
It has 136 rooms and was built in the Eight Trigrams style. The interior design is like that of mansions, with the back, center, and front halls laid out along the central axis. On the left and right sides of the halls are side rooms. The halls, the outer wall, and the doors on the left and right sides are beautifully decorated with lifelike carvings and lively, vigorous calligraphy. Next to the building is a small brook, and behind it are a few old trees: it is a lovely environment.
It is located in Nanxi Tulou Cluter, Nanjiang Village, Hekeng Town, Yongding County. It is four stories and 20 meters high, and 43.2 meters in diameter. On the first floor are thirty-two rooms. The inner ring has two halls and ten tooms, most for lodging guests. When a magnitude-7 earthquake struck Yongding On February 13,1918, the front wall of the third and fourth stories sustained a crack three meters long and one foot wide. After the earthquake, the crack miraculously came together, leaving only a long, thin scar.
Peitian ancient dwellings
Being a well preserved ancient Hakka village, Peitian Ancient Village lies on the foot of the major scenic resort of China--Guanzhai Mountain in Liancheng County, Fujian Province. Since the Ming and the Qing Dynasties, the village has served as a key interchange station connecting official roads to Changting and Liancheng. The history of this "Peitian Ancient Folk House" is more than 800 years, which can date back to the Southern Song Dynasty.
Peitian Village is famous for its completely different architectural style. Consisting of over 30 beautiful houses with tall halls, 21 ancient ancestral temples, 6 studies, 2 ancient street-crossing honorific archways and one 1000-meter-long ancient street, the ancient folk house building mass is compact, in order, interspersed but harmonious, and arranged in a scientific and rational way. The materials of architecture are wooden and bricks.
The entire allocation of folk house architecture in Ming and Qing dynasty of Peitian is get to a higher level. Ancestral hall, house, temple, stele, laneway, channel and bridge etc. village architecture with tactful disposal is spectacle and elegant. Peitian folk house building mass represented by “Scholar-bureaucrat Residence”, "Yanqing Hall" and "Official Hall". Each building is besprinkled with marvelous basso-relievoes, couplets, plaques and stone sculptures, all are exquisite in workmanship. Portraits or photos of ancestors were placed in every hall because the villagers believe ancestors are the most powerful men to bless and protect them.
Peitian folk house building mass, a xanadu with marvelous architectures, has become a must see place of interest in Fujian. Architecture experts and historians from all over the world praised highly of these architectures. Being a miracle in human's history of architecture as well as a legacy of world’s culture, Peitian village was awarded "National Historical and Cultural Village" in 2005.
Located 0.6 miles to the eastern suburb of Liancheng County in Fujian Province, Guanzhai Mountain is renowned for its majestic, attractive scenic sight as well as the unique Danxia landscape. The shape of the mountain is like the crown of Xiezhi that is a strange beast in Chinese ancient legend, hence the mountain’s name “Guanzhai”.
Covering an area of 47 square miles, Guanzhai Mountain scenic spot is a combination of mountains, lakes and rivers, caves and temples. Lingzhi Peak, shaped like a fungi, is the main peak, measuring 2,168 feet in height. Stand upon its flat topped summit, you will see a panoramic vista of villages amongst green field toward the west. To the east, high cliffs stand majestically, stacked one upon another. Wulao Peak to the southwest, rises close to Lingzhi Peak. There is a crevasse between the two peaks, called “Yi Xian Tian” (a gleam of sky).
Guanzhai Mountain also is blessed with notable manmade landscapes, among which are the academies of classical learning built during the Song (960-1279), Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties in the majority with Yangzhi Pavilion, Qiushi Academy, Xiuzhu Academy and Dongshan Cottage being the more famous ones. There are two temples: Fayun Temple built in the late Song Dynasty, and Lingzhi Temple mainly offers sacrifice to Kwan-yin, the mercy Buddha.
Due to its striking beauty, Guanzhai Mountain attracted countless men of letters to leave a great many precious calligraphies and paintings at these sites. Today, more and more visitors come here for activities such as mountain hiking, sightseeing or just to relax.
Zhongchuan ancient village
Situated in Xiayang Town, this village has a population of two to three thousand, but about 3,000 overseas Chinese trace their ancestry to this village, which makes it one of the leading ancestral homes for Chinese for other countries. In ancient times, a family produced five third-degree scholars in the imperial examines and another family produced four ministers over three generations. Another family, both the father and son achieved third-degree scholar titles. In modern times, a number of prominent people have emerged from this village. Hu Zichun was a successful zinc miner; Hu Wenhu, a patriotic overseas Chinese leader; Hu Zhaoxiang was a senator in the Republic of China; Hu Yichuan, a prominent artist; Hu Chengfang, a renowned diplomat; and Hu Xian, an international press tycoon. Historians call this extraordinary production of eminent people “the Zhongchuan Cultural Phenomenon”.